"A Treaty of Peace and Friendship..." Indian Treaty between the Cherokee Nation and South Carolina, 1761
Headmen of the Upper, Valley, Middle, and Lower Towns of the Cherokee Nation met in Charlestown in December 1761 to ratify the treaty drafted by Lieutenant Governor William Bull and Attakullakulla, the Cherokee Leader also known as “Little Carpenter”, in September 1761 to end the Cherokee War. The peace talks began in August of 1761 between Attakullakulla and James Grant, the British Commander in South Carolina at Fort Prince George. However, orders from commanding officers did not allow him to arrange a treaty that would have established peaceful relations with the Indians. Instead, William Bull orchestrated the treaty that would eventually be signed. Bull was inclined to try and establish peaceful relations and give the Cherokees encouraging replies, but he had to be careful not to upset the war-hysteria that was still prevalent in Charlestown. It was his duty to ensure that the South Carolina colony was able to protect itself from any more ensuing attacks from the Indians.This treaty sought to end the Cherokee War of 1760-1761 and to find a way to ensure peace between the warring parties. The only differences between this treaty and the September draft composed by Bull and Attakullakulla were in those articles establishing a boundary between the two nations. Instead of Twenty-Six Mile Creek, a line forty miles south of Keowee would mark the boundary between whites and Indians. The treaty barred Cherokee from traveling beyond the boundary without a white escort or an order of the South Carolina government. Original draft provisions had also called for the Cherokees to hand over any Frenchmen found in their territories. A delegation composed of leaders from other Cherokee settlements was to convene to Charleston to amend and ratify the treaty.
“A Treaty of Peace and Friendship…,” 18 December 1761. Constitutional and Organic Papers. Treaties with the Cherokees. S131005. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia, S.C.
Standard 3-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the exploration and settlement of South Carolina and the United States.
Indicator 3-2.4 Compare the culture, governance, and geographic location of different Native American nations in South Carolina, including the three principal nations—Cherokee, Catawba, and Yemassee—that influenced the development of colonial South Carolina. (H, G, P, E)
Indicator 3-2.5 Summarize the impact that the European colonization of South Carolina had on Native Americans, including conflicts between settlers and Native Americans. (H, G)
Standard 4-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the settlement of North America by Native Americans, Europeans, and African Americans and the interactions among these peoples.
Indicator 4-2.7 Explain how conflicts and cooperation among the Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans influenced colonial events including the French and Indian Wars, slave revolts, Native American wars, and trade. (H, G, P, E)
Standard 8-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the settlement of South Carolina and the United States by Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans.
Indicator 8-1.2 Categorize events according to the ways they improved or worsened relations between Native Americans and European settlers, including alliances and land agreements between the English and the Catawba, Cherokee, and Yemassee; deerskin trading; the Yemassee War; and the Cherokee War. (H, P, E)
Standard USHC-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the settlement of North America.
Indicator USHC-1.1 Summarize the distinct characteristics of each colonial region in the settlement and development the America, including religious, social, political, and economic differences. (H, E, P, G)