Lesson Plan: Overview

Trial at the Turn of the Century: A Window on a World

Grade Level: High School

 

Academic Standards

Standard USHC-5: The student will demonstrate an understanding of major social, political, and economic developments that took place in the United States during the second half of the nineteenth century.

USHC-5.1 Summarize developments in business and industry, including the ascent of new industries, the rise of corporations through monopolies and corporate mergers, the role of industrial leaders such as John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie, the influence of business ideologies, and the increasing availability of consumer goods and the rising standard of living. (E, H)
USHC-5.2 Summarize the factors that influenced the economic growth of the United States and its emergence as an industrial power, including the abundance of natural resources; government support and protection in the form of tariffs, labor policies, and subsidies; and the expansion of international markets associated with industrialization. (E, G, H, P)
USHC-5.4 Analyze the rise of the labor movement, including the composition of the workforce of the country in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, and skills; working conditions for men, women, and children; and union protests and strikes and the government’s reactions to these forms of unrest. (H, E)
USHC-5.6 Explain the influx of immigrants into the United States in the late nineteenth century in relation to the specific economic, political, and social changes that resulted, including the growth of cities and urban ethnic neighborhoods, the restrictions on immigration that were imposed, and the immigrants’ responses to the urban political machines. (H, G, P, E)
USHC-5.7 Compare the accomplishments and limitations of the progressive movement in effecting social and political reforms in America, including the roles of Theodore Roosevelt, Jane Addams, W. E. B. DuBois, and Booker T. Washington. (H, P, E)
 
Social Studies Literacy Elements
K. Use texts, photographs, and documents to observe and interpret social studies trends and relationships
N. Challenge ad hominem and other illogical arguments (e.g., name calling, personal attacks, insinuation and innuendo, circular arguments)
O. Consider multiple perspectives of documents and stories
P. Locate, gather, and process information from a variety of primary and secondary sources including maps

Historical Background Notes

No historical background notes available for this lesson plan.

Materials

  Primary Sources
  • "Editor Gonzales Makes Ante-Mortem Statement: Declares He Sent Tillman No Message, and That the Assault Was Made without Warning." The State, 16 January 1903. From Gonzales - Tillman Scrapbooks, 1903. Manuscripts Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • "Editor Shot by Lt.-Governor Tillman." NY American, 1903. From Gonzales - Tillman Scrapbooks, 1903. Manuscripts Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • Gonzales, N.G. "The Cause of Cuba." The State, 1 March 1895, 2. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • _____. "Child Slavery in Our Cotton Mills." The State, 29 January 1900, 4. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • _____. "[Editorial Regarding Child Labor Legislation]." The State, 23 January 1901, 4. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • _____. "[Editorial Regarding the Philippines]." The State, 25 January 1901, 4. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • _____. "[Editorial Regarding the Unions, Including Their Actions on Child Labor]." The State, 23 January 1901, 4. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • _____. "[Editorial Regarding the U.S. Takeover of Hawaii]." The State, 13 November 1893, 4. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • _____. "Harmful Factory Legislation." The State, 26 January 1897, 4. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • _____. "The State's Position." The State, 11 May 1895, 4. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • _____. "This Lawlessness Must Cease!" The State, 25 June 1901, 4. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
       
  • _____. "Today's Suffrage Issue." The State, 29 October 1895, 4. Newspapers on Microfilm.  Published Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
     
  • "N.G. Gonzales Shot by James Tillman." Atlanta News, 1903. From Gonzales - Tillman Scrapbooks, 1903. Manuscripts Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
     
  • "Tillman Finds Friends in Gonzales' Enemies." Florence Times, 1903. From Gonzales - Tillman Scrapbooks, 1903. Manuscripts Division, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
     
    Secondary Sources
  • Jones, Lewis Picket.Stormy Petrel:  N.G. Gonzales and His State. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1973.
       
  • Moore, John Hammond. Columbia and Richland County. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1993.

    Lesson Plans

    No lesson plan available.

    Procedures

    1. The class will be used as a review and synthesis of materials presented regarding late nineteenth century trends.  As warm-up, students will be placed in small groups and given a large piece of paper.  They will be instructed to write “Turn-of-the-Century (1900)” in the center of their paper. They then will be asked to connect the terms child labor, mechanization, immigration, ethnic groups, Tillman, the Constitution of 1895, etc. to the overall topic and be prepared to present their conclusions to the class.
       
    2. After sharing responses and verifying understanding, the teacher will use direct instruction to explain that the “turn-of-the-century” was indeed a very dynamic time.  He/she will then describe N.G. Gonzales as one of the most colorful figures of the era.  A brief overview of Gonzales’ rise to fame will be presented, as well as an overview of his views. 
       
    3. Students will now be moved to new groups and given a Gonzales primary source document on one of the vital topics of the day.  The group will analyze the document and discover the arguments that Gonzales (or an opponent) makes.  They will discuss the way different members of Columbia’s population might view those arguments.  Groups will give the class a short overview of their findings.
       
    4. Now newspaper clippings announcing the shooting and death of Gonzales will be presented. 
       
    5. Students will be told they will now be positioned as participants in the drama with the trial to be conducted the next day.  Finally, members of the groups will be assigned 1903 identities of people that would indeed have been affected, positively or negatively, by those arguments.  Their assignment will be to put together their thoughts on what they, in their assumed identity, probably would have thought and why, how this would have effected their opinion of Gonzales, and to come in the next day prepared to be examined as possible jurists to try James Tillman.
       
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    Teacher Reflections

    No teacher reflections available for this lesson plan.

    Student Assessment

    No student assessment available for this lesson plan.

    Examples of Students Work

    No examples available for this lesson plan.

    Credit

    Provided by the Teaching American History in South Carolina Project